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Guideline: References and Licensing

work in progress

Education should be free as in Freedom

Commitment to OER

use of reuse

Which content is allowed to be integrated in Serlo

basic knowlege about creative commons and other licences

list of licenses, that are allowed on Serlo

  • cc-by-sa

  • cc-by

  • cc-by-nc-sa

content from propritary sources as far as allowed by law as "cititations"

How to describe integrated content

All references that serve as basis for your research have to be listed at the end of the article or course page. Reflections or information from informal sources should be considered critically and also be indicated as such.

References start with a line (Code: ---, then return). This is followed by “References:” in bold.

Main reference: If large parts of an article are copied from another page or are the product of collaboration, it will be explained in a sentence apart.

  • Large Parts of the article are taken from [Main Reference]()

All websites used for the article:

  • [Link](): short explanation which contents from other pages were copied.


  • Fig.Number: modified by or taken by "photographer" from [website](with link).

If graphs are designed by yourself, that can be mentioned as “own figure” in the reference list, optionally including the name of the author.

Literature: All books used for the article:

  • Author, “Title”, publisher, year, page/ chapter: short explanation which contents from the book were used.

see examples in biology and permaculture


  • it is not allowed to name one self as author if the source is not another website



Exercises have to be saved in the Serlo-exercise format (exercise and solution)


Unsolved problems

  • e.g. exercise from external source, solution by Serlo - where to place the reference

  • describe how to use Serlo's content: link to